As we talked about in class, fragments are pieces of sentences instead of complete sentences. Sometimes, it is easy to see that a sentence is a complete sentence. But the kind of fragment I find most difficult is one with a relative or subordinate clause in it.
Here is an example:
The car that has worked fine for the last five years
This is a fragment. It looks good because it has a verb, has worked, and appears to have a subject, car. However, the subject is the relative pronoun, that, which admittedly does refer to car. In this sentence, car does not have a verb.
Other examples of this kind of fragment are:
The boy who ran through the park on his way to the hospital
The regiment of soldiers who fought alongside each other during the last war
The building, which has stood in that location for over a hundred years
In each case, the subject, boy, regiment, and building, does not have a verb. There is a verb that looks like a main verb, but it follows a relative pronoun and is, therefore, in an adjective clause.
The relative pronouns are that, which, whichever, whatever, who, whom, whomever, and whoever.